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官渡之戰

2014-10-22 23:36:07 未知  共有0人圍觀

   

官渡之戰

   東漢建安五年(200),曹操統軍在官渡(今河南中牟境)地區擊敗袁紹軍隊進攻的一次決戰。東漢末年,豪強擁兵割據,逐鹿中原。時袁紹擁有冀、青、幽、并四州,自恃兵多糧足,圖謀相機消滅僅據兗、豫二州的曹操。建安五年一月,衰紹率精兵10萬南下。在此之前,曹操為避免腹背受敵,已先擊潰與衰紹聯合的劉備,并進駐易守難攻的官渡。四月,曹操以聲東擊西之計,于白馬(今河南滑縣境)擊斬衰將顏良,敗衰軍。衰紹初戰失利,銳氣受挫,改分兵進擊為結營緊逼。兩軍對壘于官渡,相持數月。其間曹操因兵疲糧缺,一度欲回守許昌(今河南許昌東)。謀士荀彧認為,曹軍以弱敵強,此時退兵必為所乘;反之,衰軍輕敵,內部不和,相持既久必將有變,正可出奇制勝。曹操納其言,派兵襲燒衰軍糧車;又親率精銳5000奔襲衰軍烏巢(今河南境)糧屯,全殲衰軍,燒毀全部囤糧。消息傳來,衰紹所部軍心動搖,紛紛潰散投降。曹操乘機全線出擊,殲敵7萬余,衰紹父子僅率800余騎北逃。官渡之戰,奠定了曹操統一北方的基礎,衰紹則從此一蹶不振。官渡之戰是中國古代戰爭史上以少勝多的著名戰例。

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