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除夕行儺

2014-12-28 01:45:20 未知  共有0人圍觀
   儺是古老的一種迎神驅除疫鬼的活動。早見于《論語·鄉黨》:“鄉人儺,朝服于阼階?!笔柙唬骸皟?,逐疫鬼也,為陰陽之氣不節,厲鬼隨而作禍,故天子使方相氏黃金為四目,蒙熊皮,口作儺儺之聲,以驅疫鬼?!贝祟惢顒咏洕h魏六朝,大行于世。張衡《東京賦》載除日行儺的盛況說:“卒歲大儺,驅除群厲,方相秉鉞,巫覡操前,侲子萬童,丹首玄制,桃弧棘矢,所發無臬,飛礫雨散,剛癉必斃。
   煌火馳而星流,逐赤疫于四裔?!毙袃畷r兇神方相氏戴著黃金涂臉、有四雙眼睛的假面具,手上舞著斧鉞,跳躍而行。前頭有男女巫覡導行開路,緊跟著有童子打扮的成千上萬的“侲子”,邊走邊作出各種各樣的捉鬼驅疫的動作。其儀式隆重,規??涨?,較之前代,除驅神的迷信活動外,且具有歲終的娛神又娛人的娛樂意味。
   唐代宮廷行儺儀式要比漢魏以來熱鬧。儺舞參加的人數由一二百人增加到上千人,從單純的邊行邊舞發展到有故事情節的歌舞戲樂。據《新唐書·禮樂志》記載:宮廷行儺由太常寺經辦,“侲子”戴假面,服紅布褲褶;執事紅幘巾、紅衣,服黑衣朱裳,執楯;另一人領唱,亦假面、皮衣,執棒,樂工執鼓、角奏樂。由鼓吹令、大卜令、巫師領隊以逐惡鬼于禁廷之中。至宮城正門、皇城諸門行磔禳,設祭儀式,由太祝、齋郎行“七里埳”,然后,出宮門游行,邊奏樂、邊舞蹈、邊唱歌,直至廓外而止。錢易《南部新書》亦載:“歲除日,太常卿領官屬樂吏、并護僮侲子千余人,晚入內,至夜于寢殿前進儺,燃蠟炬,燎沉檀,螢煌如晝,上與親王妃主已下觀之?!?/div>
   除宮廷行儺外,民間儺舞也廣泛流行,但規模小,服飾也不講究。據李倬《秦中歲時記》所載:長安一帶行儺時,由樂人扮作鬼神形狀,內有兩老人稱為儺翁、儺母。翁朱衣畫褲,母青衣畫褲,也有由三四人演出歌舞小戲。儺鬼臉上涂抹著各色染料,露出一口潔白牙齒,作出驅鬼的舞蹈動作。
   對唐廷行儺風俗,詩人多有歌詠。李商隱詩:“沉香甲煎為沉燎,玉液瓊酥作壽杯?!边@里說的是宮中行大儺禮,廷階前焚燒沉香末,又添上甲脂,火焰熊熊,燃燒不息。樂人們奏樂舞蹈,后妃宮嬪們則向皇帝獻上玉液瓊漿,祝壽獻禮。與此相類似的詩歌,還有李白詩:“博山爐中沉香火,雙煙一氣凌紫霄?!蓖踅ā秾m詞》:“金吾除夜進儺名,畫绔朱衣四隊行。院院燒燈如白日,沉香火底坐吹笙?!?/div>
   大體上都反映出宮廷行儺的情景和樂趣。

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